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美国:创新PPP模式――“为成功付费”,推动教育公平

  • 导读:这里介绍美国政府的一项创新战略――为成功付费(Pay for Success,PFS)。这是一个什么样的战略?它如何与教育改革、教育公平和就业公平相结合?本文将使用三A三力评价体系进行分析,带您清楚地了解一项由政府和私人部门共同推动的社会创新。本文所使用的案例引自“善与志”公众号2016年12月23日发表的文章,作者朱照南。在此谨致谢忱。

    项目名称:为成功付费(Pay for Success,PFS)

    项目简介: 2016年11月10日,美国教育部门宣布:通过实施“为成功付费(Pay for Success,PFS)”的战略方式来支持边缘青少年群体就业、技能培训项目(Career and Technical Education,CTE)和早期双语教育项目。这表明,PFS模式在美国教育门领域已经得到认可,成为推动教育部门改革和教育公平的工具。

    Aim

    社会目标

    推动教育改革,实现教育公平和就业公平。

    Approach

    实施途径:为成功付费

    PFS(Pay For Success)是政府与私人部门合作推动解决社会问题和提供公共服务的一种创新模式,其核心方式在于找到社会问题的解决模式,并规模化。

    Pay For Success――为成功付费:主要运作方式是先由私人投资支持结果导向的社会干预项目,如果项目成功便由政府买单。而PFS也将焦点关注在为社会效果付费以及如何以最低的成本实现这些社会效果,以此提升政府解决社会问题的效率、创新性与影响力。

    目前,美国各级政府已在很多领域开始使用PFS来解决社会问题,包括母婴健康、早教、家庭稳定、无家可归者项目和刑事审判等诸多领域。美国教育部门11月10日的通告标志着PFS模式又即将在一些新的领域获得推广,主要涉及边缘青少年群体技术教育项目(CTE)和儿童英语学习项目。

    Action

    为成功付费与两个教育类项目的结合

    1、边缘青少年就业和技术培训项目

    美国教育部门为了提升为弱势、边缘青少年群体的服务效果,已经投入200万美元资助波士顿地区的社会金融(Social Financeinc, SF),推动该机构与“未来就业”(Jobs for the Future, JFF)合作,培育具有潜力的教育就业培训项目或帮助那些高质量的就业和技能培训项目实现规模化。SF和JFF将选择四个关注就业和技术教育的地方试点项目,并且帮助他们了解PFS范式如何将其项目效果最大化,惠及更多学生。SF将会协助其中三个项目开展和执行,越来越多的证据表明这些CTE项目为边缘青少年带来了积极的效果,包括提升了高中毕业率和在一些就业凭证考试中的通过率。

    2、早期英语教育项目有效性研究项目

    为了提升儿童英语学习效果,教育部门花费29万美元与华盛顿地区一家名为美国研究院(American Institutes for Research, AIR)的机构签订合同,支持该机构开展一项研究,该研究主要目的在于评估和鉴别至少两个应用新型双语教育模式的学校试点项目的有效性,研究结果公布之后就可以通过PFS项目将有效的双语教育模式规模化,让更多有需要的学生受益。

    AIR将会研究英语教育的成果如何通过PFS战略获得提升,如何撬动私人资本支持这些服务,以及如何帮助政府只为那些被证明确实能够为服务对象带来帮助的服务付费。测量英语学习效果的一个重要标准是学习者能够在三年级到达平均的阅读水平,然而学校和社区通常缺乏有效的资源提供这些教育服务。该项目研究群体主要是拉丁裔儿童,因为这一群体占到了英语早期学习者的80%。

    这一模式创新,将有利于聚焦能够产生长远影响的服务项目,让美国州政府、地方合作伙伴、私人和慈善投资联合在一起,检验新想法,寻找新方式,提升早期教育的有效性以为更多弱势儿童服务。

    美国教育部门以PFS模式推动教育和就业公平,将处于边缘地带的青少年和弱势儿童服务的有效项目识别出来并给予支持,让更多有需求的学生受益,产生更大的社会效果。PFS这一方式并不仅仅是政府资助的补充,而是一种巨大潜力的公私合作模式,该模式将会在提升公共投资的效果方面产生长远的积极影响。

    (来源:善与志、友成企业家扶贫基金会 。原文章标题《“为成功付费” (Pay for Success)如何推动弱势群体教育和就业公平?》 )

     相关阅读:

    WHAT IS PAY FOR SUCCESS?

    Pay for Success (PFS) is an approach to contracting that ties payment for service delivery to the achievement of measurable outcomes. The movement towards PFS contracting is a means of ensuring that high-quality, effective social services are working for individuals and communities.

    Traditionally, contracts or grants to support social service delivery are based on the volume of services delivered (e.g., number of students taught in a job training program) or short-term outputs (e.g., number of people who graduated from the job training program). An outcome is a longer-term (and hopefully positive) change; for example, a job training participant who finds and keeps a job, and experiences an increase in earnings.

    In a PFS contract, the payor for outcomes typically, but not exclusively, government agrees to provide funding if and when the services delivered achieve a pre-agreed-upon result. Typically, an independent evaluator determines whether the agreed-upon outcomes have been met.

    PFS contracting has been used to scale up effective programs and interventions, as well as test innovative models of service delivery. Since the payor is not committed to paying for services if they do not achieve the desired outcomes, PFS can be particularly attractive to governments as a way to realize greater accountability and efficiency by allocating resources to programs with demonstrable outcomes.

    The first PFS project launched in the United Kingdom in 2010, and the first project in the United States launched in 2012. Since then, early-stage PFS activity has occurred in most parts of the United States. As of early 2016, ten projects have launched, one project has completed, and there are more than 50 projects in development. Further, there is significant activity at the federal government level to support the growth of the PFS market. To date, PFS projects have been designed to address a range of issues, including homelessness, recidivism and early childhood education. (Updated: 2/5/16)

    PAY FOR SUCCESS FINANCING AND SOCIAL IMPACT BONDS

    Most service providers are not in a strong enough financial position to deliver services for several years with no dedicated revenue, especially with the risk of not being repaid if they do not achieve the pre-agreed upon outcomes in a Pay for Success (PFS) contract (see above). For this reason, PFS contracts are usually accompanied by financing agreements that provide upfront capital to support service delivery throughout the project period.

    PFS financing agreements, in which private investors provide upfront capital for the delivery of services and are repaid by a back-end payor (usually a government) if contractually agreed upon outcomes are achieved, are often referred to as "Social Impact Bonds" (illustrated in Chart 1 and described below). Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) are a mechanism by which to shift financial risk from service providers to investors, with investors underwriting service providers’ based on their ability to deliver on positive social outcomes.

    The contracts and the flow of money in SIB financing are often managed by a project intermediary or transaction coordinator. Funding is aggregated from private, nongovernmental investors to provide the upfront capital required by a service provider to deliver services over the life of a PFS contract. The payor contracts with the service provider for certain outcomes and also contracts with investors to pay back their investment if the agreed-upon outcomes are achieved. An independent evaluator determines whether or not the target outcomes have been met. If the target outcomes are not met, investors are not repaid.

     

    PAY FOR SUCCESS ACTORS

    Pay for Success (PFS) projects are multi-stakeholder partnerships that typically involve the public, private and nonprofit sectors.

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